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Entry Author: C. Westring
Description: A medium to large evergreen tree that is conical or pyramidal in shape
Needles: Flattened, shiny green or yellow-green. New foliage is dark green above with 2 whitish bands on the underside
Cones: Ovoid, 1.5-2.5 X 1-1.5 cm
Bark: Brown, scaly, and fissured.
Branching Pattern: Soft, graceful, horizontal to pendulous branches
Height: Up to 30 meters
Conditions/Habitat/Kind of Forest: Cool, moist, well-drained soil. Tolerates shade well.
Ecological Interactions: The seeds are eaten by squirrels, grouse and many other birds. Deer browse on the twigs. Eastern hemlock is currently threatened by the hemlock wooly adelgid, an invasive Asian insect pest.
Range: Eastern Canada down through the Eastern United States
Conservation Status-US/ World Wide: Not threatened at this time.
Uses (Human): Beautiful silvery green foliage and small cones make this a popular ornamental tree. Wood used for pulp and railroad ties. The bark is a source of tannin, which is used in tanning leather. Pioneers and Native Americans made a medicinal tea from the twigs and needles which was used to cure scurvy.
Gymnosperm Database, University of Bonn
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Petrides, G. A. A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs: Eastern and
North-Central United States and Southeastern and South Central Canada. Houghton
This page was created by: C. Westring and L. Rosenberg, Muhlenberg College
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Last updated 01/27/05