Entry Author: J.
Rogers and C. Westring
Young trees display distinctive tapered trunk and a sparse conical crown;
with age, trunk becomes more cylindrical and crown more
flattened. Most distinctive characteristics are "knees" (pneumatophores),
conical structures that rise from the roots and appear above the soil and
water. Old-growth trees reaching 400-600 years of age (sometimes
known to be 1200
Spirally-arranged needles that are flattened and scale-like with
obvious stomata on underside; green needles, turning gold brown and red
before falling off (a deciduous tree)
Small, globular, up to 2.5 cm in diameter
Scaly fibrous bark of a reddish brown color
Pattern, Etc.: Horizontal branches
30-35 meters at
maturity (max. 45 m)
Forest: Best growth achieved in deep sandy loams with
plenty of moisture in the surface layers and moderately good
drainage. Fresh water swamps and zones of brackish tidewater.
Southeastern U.S. stretching from Virginia to Florida and west to Texas
Conservation Status-US/ World
Wide: Threatened in Indiana
Important wood valued for its durability and resistance to decay.
Used as rail ties, posts, construction work, and shingles.
Harlow, W.M., Harrar, E.S., & White, F.M. Text Book of
Dendrology: Covering the Important Forest Trees of the United States
and Canada (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Petrides, G.A. Peterson Field
Guides: A field guide to trees and shrubs (2nd ed.). New York:
Hougton Mifflin, 1986.
UConn Plant Database.
University of Connecticut. Accessed: December 21, 2005.
USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5
Data compiled from various sources by Mark W. Skinner.
National Plant Data
Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.