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Laura Snodgrass, Ph.D.
Sensation & Perception Sensation & Perception
Statistics Statistics
Experimental Experimental
Cognitive Cognitive


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Cognitive Processes
Study Guide for Exam 3

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Study Guide for Exam 3

  1. Know the three different stages of memory, and facts about them.
  2. What factors influence recognition?
  3. What does successful retrieval from LTM depend upon? That is, what factors influence retrieval?
  4. Compare the two theories of cue effectiveness.
  5. Compare and discuss the three types of LTM.
  6. Why is episodic memory often called reconstructive memory? What are the real world implications of this?
  7. What does semantic memory have to do with expert performance? Provide some examples.
  8. Explain why you do or do not think that memory from LTM decays over time.
  9. What does retroactive and proactive interference have to do with forgetting?
  10. How might you minimize forgetting? (mnemonics)
  11. Describe ALL the characteristics of memory that need to be explained.
  12. Compare the feature and network and prototype models of knowledge. Be able to describe the evidence that supports each model.
  13. Compare the different network models.
  14. Define the following: incidental learning, gist memory, metamemory.
  15. Is the levels of processing model in complete conflict with the stages model, why or why not?
  16. What are Hasher and Zacks five predictions? What factors do Hasher and Zacks think are automatically encoded?
  17. What are the three theories about rote learning?
  18. What does cog psych say about CRAMMING for an exam?
  19. Compare the different types of organizational techniques.
  20. How are distinctiveness and elaboration related to depth of processing? How does this relate to the "self-referencing effect"?
  21. What evidence suggests that acoustic codes are used in STM?
  22. What do Cognitive Psychologists have to say about speed reading?
  23. What are the criticisms of the level of processing approach?
  24. What is Sperlings's partial report technique and why is it important?
  25. What mnenonic techniques did you use for studying for this exam? Based on what we studied how do you expect these techniques to help you?
  26. What model best describes how your memory is organized? What evidence do you have for this?
  27. What do cognitive psychologists have to say about eyewitness testimony? What research evidence supports these views?
  28. What is the explanation for the serial position effect?
  29. What is the neurophysiological evidence for distinguishing STM and LTM?
  30. Define: hypermnesia, the spacing effect; maintenance versus elaborative rehearsal; flashbulb memory.
  31. Describe the three components of Baddeley's multicomponent model of working memory.
  32. How has the dissociation of explicit and implicit memory tasks been used to support the multiple systems of LTM model? Be able to describe examples of the two types of tasks.
  33. How has the principle of transfer appropriate processing been used against the multiple systems model of LTM?
  34. What are the implications of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
  35. Explain the three types of encoding distortion discussed in the book.
  36. Describe the characteristics of schemas as presented in the text. Be able to explain and give examples of the different types of schemas.
  37. How are schemas acquired and modified?
  38. Discuss the six principles presented in the text that distinguish expert from novice performance.


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