X-ray Fluorescence of Coins

Air Products and Chemicals ran x-ray fluorescence analyses on the coins in a collection, and we have placed the corresponding spectra - plots of fluorescence intensity vs. the 2 angle measured in degrees - on the Web. You can access any spectrum and a 2 table by clicking a specific coin on the picture below. You can also view photos of the equipment and procedures used to obtain the spectra, or go back to the x-ray fluorescence introduction. Your recitation instructor will show you the actual coins in class.

Remember the following principles:

• Each element may produce more than one line in the spectrum. A combination of intense K line and weaker Kß lines for the same element (at lower values of 2) tends to confirm the presence of the element in the sample.
• Try to assign the most intense peaks first and then work on the smaller ones. The most intense peak is probably a first order K line from a major component in the sample.
• The experimental 2 value may differ from those in the table by +/- 0.05.
• Mo and Sc lines arise from the excitation source and are not elements in the coin.
• The K line probably arises from handling the coin with bare hands, so you may assume that potassium is not in the coin.
• Second and third order lines will appear at higher values of 2 relative to the K line.
• L lines are not as distinctive as K lines because their intensities are lower.

### Coin Collection Analyzed with X-ray Fluorescence

Click a coin on the picture to access its spectrum and a table of 2 Theta values.

 Pakistan 1962 - 1 Paisa Red arrows point to the five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.42, Significance = 85.78 2. 2 theta = 41.78, Significance = 51.84 3. 2 theta = 44.98, Significance = 249.1 4. 2 theta = 99.81, Significance = 13.92 5. 2 theta = 126.78, Significance = 10.69 Back up to Coins -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. 1943 - Penny There are six spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance for them below. 1. 2 theta = 37.50, Significance = 56.49 2. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = 68.42 3. 2 theta = 51.72, Significance = 34.64 4. 2 theta = 57.50, Significance = 187.0 5. 2 theta = 90.88, Significance = 14.41 6. 2 theta = 97.66, Significance = 16.20 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Norway 1950 - 1 Kroner Red arrows point to the four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 47.41 2. 2 theta = 43.73, Significance = 40.16 3. 2 theta = 44.93, Significance = 96.64 4. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 169.5 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Persia 500 - 1500 A.D. Red arrows point to the five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2  and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 14.17, Significance = 23.86 2. 2 theta = 15.98, Significance = 74.85 3. 2 theta = 20.31, Significance = 15.72 4. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 26.35 5. 2 theta = 97.68, Significance = 15.54 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lebanon 1955 - 1 Piastr Red arrows point to the four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 93.45 2. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 334.2 3. 2 theta = 97.66, Significance = 13.04 4. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 11.05 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Italy 1971 - 100 Lira Red arrows point to the four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 51.73, Significance = 55.34 2. 2 theta = 57.49, Significance = 273.6 3. 2 theta = 69.32, Significance = 113.4 4. 2 theta = 97.64, Significance = 21.33 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sverige 1961 - 50 Ore ‌ Red arrows point to the eight spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.88 and 14.17, Significance = 10.42 and 41,56 2. 2 theta = 15.96, Significance = 53.90 3. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 31.01 4. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = 28.91 5. 2 theta = 43.73, Significance = 10.21 6. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 238.7 7. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 33.83 8. 2 theta = 87.35, Significance = 11.34 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Denmark 1967- 25 ore There are six spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 65.52 2. 2 theta = 43.72, Significance = 53.99 3. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 359.9 4. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 173.0 5. 2 theta = 97.66, Significance = 22.21 6. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 10.04 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- France 1968 - 5 Francs There are six spectral lines of interest for this coin.See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 20.30, Significance = 12.99 2. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 66.34 3. 2 theta = 43.72, Significance = 44.23 4. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 105.3 5. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 56.83 6. 2 theta = 99.78, Significance = 13.80 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Spain 1957 - 5 Ptas There are six spectral lines of interest for this coin.See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 68.23 2. 2 theta = 43.72, Significance = 35.05 3. '2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 328.6 4. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 216.1 5. 2 theta = 97.68, Significance = 60.09 6. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 13.65 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Helvitica - 1970 There are five spectral lines of interest for this coin.See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 67.06 2. 2 theta = 43.73, Significance = 42.10 3. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 323.0 4. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 179.7 5.2 theta = 99.80, Significance = 16.13 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Rhodesia 1955 - Penny There are seven spectral lines of interest for this coin.See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 12.40, Significance = 14.23 2. 2 theta = 13.99, Significance = 11.81 3. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 92.10 4. 2 theta = 41.75, Significance = 21.51 5. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 387.6 6. 2 theta = 87.36, Significance = 22.25 7. 2 theta = 126.74, Significance = 22.29 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- South Africa 1957 There are six spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 93.96 2. 2 theta = 41.75, Significance = 22.88 3. 2 theta = 44.98 and 45.07, Significance = 39.71 and 47.43 4. 2 theta = 97.66, Significance = 23.27 5. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 11.23 6. 2 theta = 136.62, Significance = 11.89 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Canada 1952 Quarter There are twelve spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.880 and 14.174, Significance = 13.6 and 73.52 2. '2 theta = 15.972 and 16.102, Significance = 68.88 and 11.38' 3. 2 theta = 20.291, Significance = 10.55 4. 2 theta = 35.94, Significance = .83 5. 2 theta = 40.430, Significance = 35.33 6. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = .78 7. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 103.3 8. 2 theta = 48.642, Significance = 1.76 9. 2 theta = 57.506, Significance = 2.07 10. 2 theta = 97.682, Significance = 22.75 11. 2 theta = 113.08, Significance = 3.33 12. 2 theta = 133.720, Significance = 11.09 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ U.S. 1943 5 Cents There are twelve spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 14.17, Significance = 50.65 2. 2 theta = 15.96, Significance = 53.59 3. 2 theta = 33.96, Significance = 1.32 4. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 42.47 5. 2 theta = 41.78, Significance = 1.46 6. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 236.3 7. 2 theta = 48.66, Significance = 1.05 8. 2 theta = 51.74, Significance = 0.76 9. 2 theta = 56.63, Significance = 4.71 10. 2 theta = 57.50, Significance = 0.139 11. 2 theta = 62.92, Significance = 3.21 12. 2 theta = 69.57, Significance = 0.92 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Somalia 1950 - 1 Centismo There are four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 97.79 2. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = 77.02 3. 2 theta = 44.97 and 45.07, Significance = 42.30 and 50.95 4. 2 theta = 99.78, Significance = 19.49 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1900 - Six Pence There are five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.88 and 14.17, Significance = 14.81 and 70.26 2. 2 theta = 15.96, Significance = 77.63 3. 2 theta = 20.29, Significance = 18.87 4. 2 theta = 40.42, Significance = 13.81 5. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 57.40 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1909 - Penny There are four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.99, Significance = 22.08 2. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 94.31 3. 2 theta = 41.75, Significance = 17.72 4. 2 theta = 44.98 and 45.08, Significance = 55.94 and 23.74 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. 1915 Buffalo Nickel There are fifteen spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 14.05, Significance = 1.54 2. 2 theta = 15.99, Significance = 1.04 3. 2 theta = 37.51, Significance = 1.14 4. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 70.02 5. 2 theta = 41.77, Significance = 3.63 6. 2 theta = 43.72, Significance = 40.53 7. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 326.6 8. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 204.3 9. 2 theta = 51.74, Significance = .98 10. 2 theta = 56.68, Significance = 1.49 11. 2 theta = 57.49, Significance = 3.08 12. 2 theta = 62.96, Significance = 10.89 13. 2 theta = 87.31, Significance = 19.16 14. 2 theta = 113.11, Significance = 19.04 15. 2 theta = 126.78, Significance = 1.46 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Lebanon 1955 - 2 1/2 Piastr There are four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 93.45 2. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 334.2 3. 2 theta = 97.66, Significance = 13.04 4. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 11.05 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1953 - Farthing There are six spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 12.39, Significance = 10.11 2. 2 theta = 13.99, Significance = 11.87 3. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 96.17 4. 2 theta = 41.75, Significance = 15.31 5. 2 theta = 44.99 and 45.08, Significance = 54.01 and 20.48 6. 2 theta = 126.73, Significance = 19.44 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1897 - Penny There are seven spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 12.40, Significance = 11.47 2. 2 theta = 13.99, Significance = 16.16 3. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 96.55 4. 2 theta = 41.75, Significance = 12.98 5. 2 theta = 44.98 and 45.08, Significance = 56.86 and 32.43 6. 2 theta = 87.38, Significance =16.14 7. 2 theta = 99.78, Significance = 14.35 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1930 - Half Penny There are seven spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.99, Significance = 11.36 2. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 71.58 3. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = 21.64 4. 2 theta = 44.98 and 45.08, Significance = 56.39 and 30.64 5. 2 theta = 87.35, Significance = 21.67 6. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 11.04 7. 2 theta = 126.73, Significance = 16.61 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. 1782 - 1 Bit There are eight spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.88, Significance = 10.54 2. 2 theta = 14.17, Significance =74.22 3. 2 theta = 16.10, Significance =10.76 4. 2 theta = 20.30, Significance = 14.05 5. 2 theta = 30.19, Significance = 12.00 6. 2 theta = 35.88, Significance = 13.80 7. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 44.08 8. 2 theta = 133.75, Significance = 18.45 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. 1922 - Silver Dollar There are eight spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 14.17,Significance = 57.44 2. 2 theta = 15.96, Significance = 77.05 3. 2 theta = 16.10, Significance = 10.62 4. 2 theta = 20.29, Significance = 10.87 5. 2 theta = 33.80, Significance = 0.78 6. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 14.83 7. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 49.75 8. 2 theta = 57.48, Significance = 1.32 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1956 - Shilling There are three spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 70.85 2. 2 theta = 43.73, Significance = 38.45 3. 2 theta = 44.63 and 44.93, Significance = 381.6 and 165.6 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sverige 1955 - Konung There are seven spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 14.17, Significance = 53.97 2. 2 theta = 15.96, Significance = 69.07 3. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 51.29 4. 2 theta = 41.75, Significance = 21.54 5. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 62.13 6. 2 theta = 122.02, Significance = 12.80 7. 2 theta = 133.74, Significance = 22.62 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Peru 1945 - Centavo There are four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.42, Significance = 93.36 2. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = 14.03 3. 2 theta = 44.98 and 45.07, Significance = 78.27 and 17.63 4. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 15.40 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Canada 1980 Penny There are five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.431, Significance = 96.90 2. 2 theta = 41.750, Significance = 22.65 3. 2 theta = 44.976 and 45.073, Significance = 42.42 and 38.04 4. 2 theta = 97.666, Significance = 12.78 5. 2 theta = 99.802, Significance = 15.28 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- U.S. 1848 Penny There are three spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 97.01 2. 2 theta = 44.97 and 45.02, Significance = 44.20 and 44.67 3. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 14.71 Back up to Coins ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Netherlands 1958 - 5 Cents There are five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 65.96 2. 2 theta = 43.73, Significance = 34.17 3. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 370.0 4. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 74.62 5. 2 theta = 87.29, Significance = 15.96 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Canada 1887 - 1 Cent There are five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 13.99, Significance = 11.43 2. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 90.84 3. 2 theta = 41.76, Significance = 32.33 4. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 388.1 5. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 14.19 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Italy 1954 - 5 Lira There are four spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 20.30, Significance = 10.59 2. 2 theta = 57.49, Significance = 9.03 3. 2 theta = 62.94, Significance = 14.55 4. 2 theta = 97.68, Significance = 22.79 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- England 1926 Penny There are seven spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta =13.999, significance=10.49 2. 2 theta =40.434, significance=117.9 3. 2 theta =41.769, significance=50.93 4. 2 theta =44.991, significance=57.05 5. 2 theta=45.084, significance=25.44 6. 2 theta =114.410, significance=12.70 7. 2 theta =126.747, significance=12.16 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Denmark 1967 - 5 Kroner There are five spectral lines of interest for this coin. See the 2 and significance below, in order from left to right on the spectrum. 1. 2 theta = 40.43, Significance = 71.93 2. 2 theta = 43.73, Significance = 48.69 3. 2 theta = 44.99, Significance = 387.2 4. 2 theta = 48.63, Significance = 166.3 5. 2 theta = 99.79, Significance = 12.66