Gold is named from the Latin aurum, shining dawn and been known since ancient times. Gold is found in nature as the free metal and in tellurides; it is very widely distributed and is almost always associated with quartz or pyrite. About two-thirds of the world's gold output comes from South Africa. The metal is recovered from its ores by cyaniding, amalgamating and smelting processes. Refining is also frequently done by electrolysis. Of all the elements, gold in its pure state is the most beautiful. It is metallic and has a yellow color. It is a soft metal and is usually alloyed to give it more strength. Gold is used in coinage and is a standard for monetary systems in many countries. It is also used extensively for jewelry, decoration, dental work and plating. It is estimated that all the gold in the world, so far refined, would fit comfortably in a large barn.